O circuito lógico TTL é um dispositivo TTL que possui quatro portas lógicas AND de duas entradas cada porta. Ele é usado, principalmente, em circuitos. jpg ( × pixels, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg). Open in Media English: chip Date, 14 Circuito integrado Utilice dos CI y un CI Contador decimal Esto se hace iniciando el circuito con cada uno de los seis estados no utilizados mediante las entradas de .

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The internal voltage drop of across the gate causes the difference between these voltage levels. Emitter-Follower DC Bias a.

This will SET the flip flop. Open-collector is active-LOW only. The experimental data is identical to that obtained from the simulation. Maintain proper bias across Q1 and Q2.

In the depletion MOSFET the channel is established by the doping process and exists with no gate-to-source voltage applied. Computer Exercises Pspice Simulations 1. Replace R1 with 20 Kohm resistor. Clampers Effect of R a.

For the positive region of vi: As noted above, the results are essentially the same. A better expression for the output impedance is: The heavy doping greatly reduces the width cricuito the depletion region resulting in lower levels of Zener voltage. Both capacitances are present in both the reverse- and forward-bias directions, but the transition capacitance is the dominant effect for reverse-biased diodes and the diffusion capacitance is the dominant effect for forward-biased conditions.

Variation of Alpha and Beta b. Such divergence is not excessive given the variability of electronic components. The LCD, however, requires a light source, either internal or external, and the temperature range of the LCD is limited to temperatures above freezing.


The propagation delay measured was about 13 nanoseconds. The amplitude of the TTL pulses are about 5 volts, that of the Output terminal 3 is about 3. Computer Exercises PSpice Simulation 1.

Beta would be a constant anywhere along that line. There is a reverse leakage current at the gate which reduces the effective input impedance below that of RG by being in parallel with it. Otherwise, its output is at a logical LOW. How to cite this article. The levels are higher for hfe but note that VCE is higher also. Indeed it is, the difference between calculated and measured values is only 10 Hz using the counter, whereas the difference between signal generator setting and calculated values was 50 Hz.

Given the tolerances of electronic circuit due to their components and that of the Darlington chip, the results are quite satisfactory. No VPlot data 1.


A line or lines onto which data bits are connected. The difference in the experimentally determined propagation delay was 13 nanoseconds compared to a propagation delay of 12 nanoseconds as obtained from the simulation data.

Curves are essentially the same with new scales as shown.

Logic States versus Voltage Levels b. As noted in Fig.


Thus, the design is relatively stable in regard to any Beta variation. The Betas are about the same. Y is identical to that of the TTL clock. Circuit operates as a window detector. Vin is swept linearly from 2 V to 8 V in 1 Circuuto increments. Interchange J1 with J2 The output from the model includes air flow and pressure along the circuit. The fact that the outermost shell with its 29th electron is incomplete subshell can contain 2 electrons and distant from the nucleus reveals that this electron is loosely bound to its parent atom.


A p-type semiconductor material is formed by doping an intrinsic material with acceptor atoms having an insufficient number of electrons in the valence shell to complete the covalent bonding thereby creating a hole in the covalent structure. The percent differences are determined with calculated values as the reference.

The smaller the level of R1, 740 higher the peak value of the gate current. The IS level of the germanium diode is approximately times as large as that of the 7048 diode. Design parameter Measured value AV min. Thus it can be seen that the given formulation was actually a minimum cricuito of the output impedance.

Not in preferred firing area. Full-Wave Rectification Bridge Configuration a. Waveforms agree within 6.

For measuring sinusoidal waves, the DMM gives a direct reading of the rms value of the measured waveform. No significant discrepancies 8. For an ac voltage with a dc value, shifting the ciruito switch from its DC to AC position will make the waveform shift down in proportion to the dc value of the waveform.