LA ENUNCIACION KERBRAT ORECCHIONI PDF
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Subjectivity in the political language of president Mujica: A theoretical framework was developed combining two other theories to reinforce Enunciation Theory,which was insufficient to analyze the social inscriptions of discourse: The findings indicate a relationship between narrative and the construction of power, and justify the use of the case study method for the analysis ofother political discourse corpora.
The purpose of this study is to examine what valid theoretical and methodological contributions the field of linguistics can provide to the analysis of political discourse in Uruguay. This approach falls within current research trends in political communications in Latin America, which have pivoted from the classical study of political parties towards a closer examination of the particular worldview and profile ofits leaders.
Not only does he speak like any other Uruguayan but his empathy, simplicity and humility give mass character to his discourse by demonstrating that he understands common folk, identifies with them, thinks like them and lives like them. The relevance that his language has towards making a linguistic contribution to discourse studies in Uruguay inevitably makes him thetopic for an in-depth case study.
Additionally, the state of the art of discourse analysis in Uruguay has elevated this interest, since research on political discourseis mainlystudied by disciplines such as history 1political science 2 and sociology. This article develops an analytical framework based on three theoretical approaches for the analysis and interpretation of a corpus of speeches.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework. The analytical model applied falls within Enunciation Theory Kerbrat-Orecchioni Steering away from structural linguistics, French Enunciation Theory and the American and English Schools of Pragmatics took their origin in philosophy of language and arose in response to the limitations of examining language as a closed abstract system. Bothschools of thoughtgive importance to language in use and language as action.
Focus is placed on the production of language in relation to its users inter-subjectivity and tobackground context. Hence, language is conceivedas an interactional activity. A chronology of historical events was prepared and matched against his climb up the political ladder. As an illustration, the first speech corresponds to a milestone that is of historic political relevance.
Mujica is chosen by fellow Tupamaros to deliver a speech,hours after being released from prison where theyspent 13 years. Thecentral message in this speech is the historic decision of the Tupamaro National Liberation Movement MLN-T, acronym in Spanish to abandon arms and return to the political arena as a legitimate political force.
This milestone is critical in two ways: Years later, in an interview, Mujicawould explain why he was chosen as their spokesperson Mazzeo Mujicacreated a narrative that shaped his public image over time, whileinterpreting Uruguayan society differently than his predecessors.
Said interpretation accentuated the Uruguayan ethos 4 with its distinguishing character, sentiment, and guiding beliefs.
At a conceptual level, this construction of image is of interest given the nexus that exists between the ethos and the reflexive nature of enunciation.
French linguist and discourse analyst Dominique Maingueneau 5 understands ethos as a constituent element of discourse and writes: Sinceethos underlies theenunciational performance, Mujica sets himself on stagediscursively phonetically, syntactically, through gesture, etc.
Thereby, ethos forms an intrinsic part of the image that Mujica creates of himself and of hisaddressees through enunciation. The concept of subjectivity was introduced into linguistics by Benveniste who writes: Similarly, Kerbrat-Orecchionimetaphorically describeshow subjectivity permeates language: Sinceenunciational activity leaves traces in utterances, discourse analysis seeks to identify the markers, expressions and traces that reflect the subjectivity of those who speak in a given context of enunciation.
Enunciation accounts for the construction of subjectivity and therefore inter-subjectivity, since there is no discourse without the presence of Others. Subjectivity is central to the analysis of enunciation. Enunciation theory looks at subjectivity through the notion of deixis, which is a referential linguistic cue that localizes a speech event and its participants in space and time. There are three principal categories of deixis: In other words, deictic markers require contextual information to convey meaning.
The same applies to verbs and adverbs, which also connote subjectivity. Adverbs that convey subjectivity contain value judgments or degrees of adhesion or rejection of the speaker in relation to the contents of his utterances: Also fundamental are his family origins, the economic conditions that marked his life and the interpretative and evaluative attitudes which led him to embrace socialist thinking despite having been politically initiated at the age of twenty one within the conservative ideology of the Partido Nacional National Party and affiliated, at the age of twenty nine,with the revolutionary MLN-Tupamaros.
Ittakes into account parameters oftheverbal interaction and the competencies required of speakers to achieve communication. Her approach is outlined in figure 1.
In her book Enunciation: Sheinvalidates the theory of a universal code shared by all speakers, claiming that it ignores the natural phenomena and variations within linguistic exchanges Kerbrat-Orecchioni Among its parameters she includes linguistic, paralinguistic, ideological and cultural competencies as well as psychological determinations, among other considerations.
Atheoretical triangulation was developedto examine the multiple dimensions of the object of study more accurately and reduce bias in interpretation. The triangulation includesEnunciation Theory and two other theoretical approaches. Through this triangulation, the objectivity of research findings was increased and preliminary conclusions were broadened. The corpus includes five speeches that correspond to the most relevant socio-historical milestones in a timeline spanning from to The corpus comprises the following speeches 9: The study comprised two stages: In the second stage, the speeches were compared and contrasted and taken as a macrostructure whose diachronic evolution revealed continuities and ruptures analysis of multiple-addressees, invariant nucleus of values, paradigmatic 11 enunciations and symbolic communication.
Determining the origins and characteristics of his narrative, how it is constructed and who his interlocutors are.
File:Esquema de comunicacion segun Kerbrat-Orecchioni.jpg
Explaining how his discourse reflects or is inspired by Uruguayan culture and national history. Given the scarcity of revolutionary narratives and literature that provide firsthand accounts of Tupamaro history, secondary sources were consulted This literature helps locate Mujica as anenunciative subject. The procedureinvolvedanalyzing the enunciation mechanisms used by Mujicafor creating a narrative with a distinct style.
Towards ogecchioni end, the manifestation of subjectivity in the corpus was studied at different moments of his political career. A first stageidentifiedthe traces of the subject subjectivity and a second stagelooked at the modes in which he referred to othervoices inter-subjectivity. The socialist values in the concept of Hombre Nuevo include solidarity, self-criticism, tolerance, learning, change, sincerity, humanity, simplicityand empathy towards the poor.
In Discourse 1, line 59, Mujica explains these values to Tupamaro youth: I will not follow the path towards hatred, not even withthose who were vile towards us; hate does not build.
In Discourse 2, linehe legitimates his defense of solidarity by saying he will stand: Thus, the central themes that pervade his speeches are a moral discourse, an inter-subjective populist discourse, a philosophical discourse conveying ideals, and a discourse of action. Moreover, his rhetorical style which asserts a connection to history, positions him within the oratorical traditions of Uruguayans.
This oral tradition spread to the covert language used in clandestinity orecchuoni the Tupamaros 14 and to the practice of having to memorize facts instead of documenting them in writing.
This partially explains the absence of original source documentation for this study According to this author, the discourse of insurgency shows contemporary insurgents identifying with past insurgencies explicitly. He defines the caudillo as a cultural hero who awakens a collective identityin his followers The term patriada refers to wars of independence and was adopted by the Blancos later to refer to their patriotic insurgencies.
The Blanco Party fought for kkerbrat inclusive Uruguayan nation while it kerbrwt excluded from political participation due to the domination of the Colorado Party. Mujica resorts to this narrative when he says: Rural upheavals took place as early as and paved the way towards a longstanding divide between the city and the countryside. The enuncicaion traditional political parties acted under the same power paradigm resulting from the signature of the political pact called Pacto de la Cruz and whenthe National Party or Partido Nacional came out losing.
This new paradigm that Mujica encourages has its origins in an roecchioni nucleus of ideas and values that he has long possessed, guided by a worldview or W eltanschauung that governs his discursive field, and a system of multiple strategic variations he uses to expand it, whilstantagonizing with his present adversary.
File:Esquema de comunicacion segun – Wikimedia Commons
Schematically, starting from the invariant nucleus, the successive stages he followedserved to conciliate and persuade a few and to confront other adversaries. Therefore, each milestone corresponds to a new stage in the construction of political power. These milestones clearly emerge from his political biography and identify the moments when he earned positions of power. The first milestone is the release of old Tupamaro leadershipfrom prison on 17 March after 13 years of captivity and corresponds to a speech D1, delivered to Tupamaro militants a few days after this historic event.
The second milestone is the decision adopted in by Mujica and his partisans to participate democratically and legitimately in political life by requesting the entry of the MLN-Tupamaros to the left-wing FrenteAmplio party, a historical decision conveyed in his speech at the IV MLN-Tupamaro Convention D2, The third milestone corresponds to a harangue, captured in video,delivered in by Senator Mujicawho addressesa rural community in the Cerro Largo Department to persuade them to vote for FrenteAmplio D3, The fourth milestone corresponds to the presidential address of 1 March D4, The discursive strategies Mujicausesare as follows: Political Militancy Strategy D1, Legitimation Strategy D2, Domestic Institutionalization Strategy D4, Foreign Institutionalization Strategy D5, In the first speech of the corpus D1, Mujica uses a militancy strategy to address Tupamaros and supporters.
He shows the convictions of an old fighter who has just left jail and wishes to return to public life. He addresses a young political force that needs to become organized. He strategically appeals to the loyalty of militants who continued to support theirleaders while in prison.
Mujica represents the leader who has come to challenge the existing power structure and who proposes an alliance to the balkanized left through the entry of the MLN-T to the FrenteAmpliowith the ultimate aim of gaining power.
The third speech D3, displays an ownership-seeking strategy for the joint action of the entire Uruguayan Left in the elections. Mujica shows himself as the motivator of a political force as he addresses a people-nation that has witnessed enubciacion public works carried out by the FrenteAmplio in Government,and which are harshly criticized by the opposition. The fourth speech D4, is a domestic institutionalization strategy upon assuming the presidency of Uruguay.
Mujica presents himself to the country as a guarantor of democracy. The fifth speech D5, is a foreign institutionalization strategy directed orfcchioni businessmen and other international players. Mujica presents himself as an advocate of a small country that suffers great economic asymmetries withneighboring countries: The Construction of Power and Fig. Persuasion and the Construction of Power.
The five speeches belong to each of these discursive strategiesused by Mujicato expand his domestic and foreign persuasive influence.